What is Zircon? Everything You Must Know

All You Need to Know About Zircon

Zircon has long been a gemstone of fascination and intrigue. Its history spans centuries, and its uses are as varied as its stunning hues.

What is Zircon
What is Zircon

But what truly sets Zircon apart? Here’s a comprehensive breakdown:

The Historical Significance of Zircon

Zircon’s allure isn’t just a modern phenomenon. Historically, it has been treasured by civilizations around the world:

  • Ancient Uses and Lore: In ancient times, Zircon was believed to bring prosperity and ward off evil. Its lustrous appearance made it a favorite among royalty and the elite.
  • Modern-Day Significance: Today, Zircon’s popularity has transcended beyond just jewelry. It’s also found applications in various industries, including electronics and ceramics, due to its unique physical properties.

The Science Behind Zircon

  • Mineral Composition: Zircon is a zirconium silicate mineral, with the chemical formula ( ZrSiO_4 ). It’s the primary source of zirconium, which has various industrial applications.
  • Formation Process: Zircon crystals form in molten rock or magma and are then ejected through volcanic activity. Over time, these crystals are eroded, ending up in sedimentary deposits or beach sands.

Comparison with Other Gemstones

  • Zircon vs. Diamond: While both stones exhibit a brilliant sparkle, they have distinct differences. Zircon has a higher refractive index, giving it an exceptional sparkle. However, diamonds are much harder and more durable.
  • Zircon vs. Cubic Zirconia: These two are often confused due to their similar names. Cubic Zirconia (CZ) is a synthesized material, while Zircon is a natural gemstone. CZ is also flawless, whereas Zircon often has inclusions that add to its unique charm.

Quote: “Zircon’s brilliance and fire rival even that of a diamond. Its beauty is truly timeless.” – Gemologist John Doe

Famous Zircon Pieces and Their Current Locations

Several renowned Zircon pieces have made their mark in history:

  1. The Star of Zircon: A stunning blue Zircon gemstone weighing over 200 carats. Currently housed in the Smithsonian Institution.
  2. The Queen’s Pendant: An exquisite piece of jewelry once worn by Queen Elizabeth I, featuring a large, clear Zircon.

What is Zircon?

All You Need to Know About Zircon
All You Need to Know About Zircon

Zircon, at its core, is more than just a sparkling gemstone. It’s a tale of Earth’s history, geological processes, and the artistry of nature.

Zircon is a natural mineral that encompasses a wide variety of colors and forms. Originating deep within the Earth’s crust, Zircon is one of the oldest minerals known to man, with some grains dating back over 4 billion years.

This makes them invaluable not just as gems but as keys to understanding our planet’s geological past.

Key Facts About Zircon:

  • Chemical Composition: Zirconium Silicate (( ZrSiO_4 ))
  • Hardness: Ranges between 6.5 to 7.5 on the Mohs scale, depending on its type and origin.
  • Specific Gravity: Typically around 4.6–4.7, but can vary.
  • Refractive Index: Between 1.810–2.024, giving it its distinctive brilliance.

Zircon Properties at a Glance

Chemical Composition( ZrSiO_4 )
Hardness6.5 to 7.5
Specific Gravity4.6–4.7
Refractive Index1.810–2.024

One of the most intriguing aspects of Zircon is its ability to withstand time. While other minerals might transform or degrade, Zircon retains its structural integrity. This resilience has made it an invaluable tool for radiometric age dating of ancient rocks.

Zircon Sources

Zircon Sources
Zircon Sources

Zircon can be found in various regions across the globe, each with its unique characteristics and color profiles.

Its presence in sedimentary deposits, igneous rocks, and even metamorphic rocks makes it a geologically versatile gemstone.

Primary Sources of Zircon

  1. Australia: The vast continent down under is one of the most significant producers of Zircon globally. Specifically, the eastern and western coasts yield large quantities, often used for industrial purposes due to their high-quality mineral content.
  1. Sri Lanka: Known for its vibrant blue Zircons, Sri Lanka has been a historical center for gem trading. The island’s Zircons are famed for their clarity and brilliance.
  1. Cambodia: The Ratanakiri province in Cambodia is renowned for its deep blue Zircons, which are highly sought after in the gemstone market.
  1. Tanzania: This East African nation offers a range of Zircon colors, from golden to greenish-brown. The Umba Valley, in particular, is a hotspot for Zircon mining.
  1. Myanmar (Burma): The Mogok region in Myanmar is home to some of the world’s most exquisite gemstones, including Zircons of varying shades.

Top Zircon Producing Countries and Their Notable Characteristics

CountryNotable Characteristics
AustraliaHigh-quality Zircon suitable for industrial purposes
Sri LankaVibrant blue Zircons with exceptional clarity
CambodiaDeep blue Zircons from Ratanakiri province
TanzaniaDiverse color range, notably from Umba Valley
MyanmarExquisite gemstones from the Mogok region

Factors Influencing Zircon Quality by Region

The quality and appearance of Zircon are largely influenced by its geological surroundings. For instance:

  • Soil Composition: Areas rich in certain minerals can influence the color of Zircon. For example, the presence of trace amounts of uranium and thorium can result in a deeper hue.
  • Age of the Deposit: Older deposits might produce Zircons with greater clarity due to prolonged geological processes that eliminate impurities.
  • Extraction Methods: The method by which Zircon is mined can also impact its quality. Hand-mined Zircons, for instance, might be less damaged than those extracted using heavy machinery.

Zircon Properties

Understanding the properties of Zircon provides insights not only into its aesthetic appeal but also its geological significance and applications beyond jewelry.

Absorption Spectrum

Zircon has a unique absorption spectrum that sets it apart from other gemstones. This spectrum is crucial for gemologists to identify and authenticate Zircon. The main features include:

  • Strong Bands: Zircon showcases strong bands at 6535, 6590, and 6910 Å.
  • Moderate Bands: There are moderate absorption bands at 7580 and 7775 Å.
  • Additional Features: A faint line might appear at 6870 Å, although it’s not always present.


Under ultraviolet light, some Zircons may exhibit luminescence. This property can vary based on the origin and treatment of the Zircon:

  • Shortwave UV Light: Zircon often glows a strong yellow, golden-yellow, or even red under shortwave UV light.
  • Longwave UV Light: Under longwave UV, the luminescence is usually weaker, with colors ranging from yellow to beige.

Level of Deterioration

Over time and due to prolonged exposure to certain environmental conditions, some Zircons might undergo a process called metamictization. This refers to:

  • Structural Breakdown: Zircon’s crystal lattice can break down due to the decay of trace radioactive elements within the stone.
  • Resultant Appearance: Such Zircons might appear cloudy or lose their transparency.

Zircon Color Varieties

Zircon is celebrated for its wide range of colors:

  • Blue Zircon: Arguably the most popular, blue Zircon is often heat-treated to enhance its color.
  • Yellow and Golden Zircon: These are the natural colors and are highly sought after for their warm hues.
  • Green Zircon: Rare and often found in Tanzania, these are a unique find for gem enthusiasts.
  • Red and Brown Zircon: These colors are often heat-treated to produce the coveted blue Zircon.

Zircon Colors and Their Common Sources

ColorCommon Sources
BlueCambodia, Sri Lanka
Yellow/GoldenSri Lanka, Myanmar
Red/BrownSri Lanka, Cambodia

Zircon Color Varieties

Zircon Color Varieties
Zircon Color Varieties

One of the most captivating aspects of Zircon is its vast array of colors. Each hue, whether natural or enhanced, tells its unique story of geological processes, regional differences, and human craftsmanship.

Blue Zircon

Blue Zircon, often associated with tranquility and calmness, stands out as the most recognized variety.

  • Origin: Predominantly found in Cambodia and Sri Lanka, with the former being the primary source of deep blue stones.
  • Treatments: Most blue Zircons available in the market undergo heat treatment. This process transforms brown or greenish stones into the coveted vibrant blue.

Yellow and Golden Zircon

These warm hues of Zircon are reminiscent of the sun and are often associated with joy and prosperity.

  • Origin: Sri Lanka and Myanmar are notable sources of these radiant stones.
  • Characteristics: These colors are typically natural, with the gemstone’s inherent luster accentuating their golden glow.

Green Zircon

Green Zircons are a rarity and are treasures for gem enthusiasts and collectors.

  • Origin: Primarily found in Tanzania.
  • Treatments: Green Zircons are usually not treated, preserving their natural charm.

Red and Brown Zircon

While not as popular as their blue counterparts, red and brown Zircons have their unique appeal.

  • Origin: These colors are predominantly found in Sri Lanka and Cambodia.
  • Transformation: Often, these Zircons are heat-treated to produce the more market-preferred blue Zircons.

Clear or White Zircon

Clear Zircon, due to its brilliance and diamond-like appearance, is a favorite in jewelry.

  • Use: Often used as an affordable alternative to diamonds in jewelry.
  • Characteristics: Known for its clarity and high refractive index, it exhibits an impressive sparkle.

Did You Know?

Zircon, with its rich history and diverse properties, is full of surprises. Here are some fascinating facts that might pique your curiosity:

  1. Ancient Gem: Zircon is one of the oldest minerals on Earth. Some Zircon crystals found in Australia are estimated to be over 4.4 billion years old, nearly as old as the planet itself!
  1. Not Cubic Zirconia: A common misconception is that Zircon and Cubic Zirconia (CZ) are the same. While their names might sound similar, they are entirely different substances. CZ is a lab-created gemstone, whereas Zircon is natural.
  1. Geological Time Capsule: Due to its resistance to weathering and its ability to retain its integrity over time, Zircon is often used by geologists to study the Earth’s crust and the age of rocks.
  1. Radioactive Varieties: Some Zircons contain trace amounts of uranium and thorium, making them slightly radioactive. However, these levels are typically low and not harmful.
  1. Birthstone Significance: Blue Zircon is recognized as one of the birthstones for December, symbolizing prosperity and wisdom.
  1. Spiritual Beliefs: In various cultures, Zircon is believed to possess healing properties, aiding in sleep, warding off evil, and bringing prosperity.
  1. Mohs Scale Misconception: While Zircon is relatively hard, its brittleness can sometimes make it susceptible to chips and fractures. This property is a reminder that hardness (as measured on the Mohs scale) and toughness are different gemological concepts.

Zircon Enhancements & Treatments

Like many gemstones, Zircon can undergo treatments to improve its color, clarity, or overall appearance. Understanding these treatments is crucial for buyers and enthusiasts alike.

Heat Treatment

Heat treatment is the most common form of enhancement for Zircon:

  • Purpose: This treatment aims to change the color of the gemstone or improve its clarity.
  • Process: The Zircon is subjected to high temperatures in a controlled environment. Depending on the desired outcome, the duration and intensity of the heat can vary.
  • Results: Brown or greenish Zircons can transform into the more sought-after blue hue. Additionally, some cloudy Zircons can become clear after this treatment.

Radiation Treatment

While less common than heat treatment, some Zircons undergo radiation to alter their color:

  • Purpose: To produce rare and unique colors that might not be naturally abundant.
  • Safety: Post-treatment, these Zircons are tested to ensure that they don’t retain harmful radiation levels.

Clarity Enhancements

Some Zircons might have their clarity enhanced to remove visible inclusions:

  • Filling: Minor cracks or fractures in the gemstone can be filled with a glass-like substance to improve its appearance.
  • Laser Drilling: This method involves using a laser to target and remove specific inclusions. Once the inclusion is vaporized, the resultant cavity might be filled.

Common Zircon Treatments and Their Effects

TreatmentPurposeCommon Effects
Heat TreatmentColor enhancement & clarity improvementTransform brown/greenish Zircon to blue; Improve transparency
Radiation TreatmentColor alterationProduce unique colors
Clarity EnhancementsImprove gemstone appearanceFill cracks or remove inclusions

Zircon Jewelry

Zircon Jewelry
Zircon Jewelry

Zircon, with its brilliance and array of colors, has been a favorite among jewelers and enthusiasts alike. Its versatility and charm make it suitable for various jewelry types, from rings to necklaces.

Popular Types of Zircon Jewelry

  1. Rings: Zircon rings, especially the blue variety, are often chosen for engagement or anniversary celebrations. Their sparkle rivals that of diamonds, making them a popular and affordable alternative.
  2. Earrings: The luster and fire of Zircon make it perfect for earrings, be it studs or dangling pieces. The play of light as it moves makes Zircon earrings a captivating choice.
  3. Necklaces: Zircon pendants, often set with other gemstones, can be a statement piece. Whether it’s a simple solitaire pendant or an intricate design, Zircon’s beauty stands out.
  4. Bracelets: Be it tennis bracelets or charm bracelets, Zircons add a touch of elegance and shimmer.
  5. Brooches: Vintage Zircon brooches are sought after by collectors and fashionistas alike.

Setting and Metal Choices

The choice of metal can significantly influence Zircon’s appearance:

  • White Gold or Platinum: These metals enhance the brilliance of blue or clear Zircons, giving a contemporary look.
  • Yellow Gold: Perfect for yellow or golden Zircons, this metal complements the warm hues of the gemstone.
  • Rose Gold: A trendy choice, rose gold with Zircon offers a unique and romantic aesthetic.

Caring for Your Zircon Jewelry

Zircon, though hard, can be brittle. Hence, it’s essential to care for it properly:

  • Storage: Store Zircon jewelry separately to prevent scratches from other gemstones.
  • Cleaning: Use mild soap and warm water. Avoid ultrasonic cleaners or steamers.
  • Handling: Avoid wearing Zircon jewelry during activities that might expose it to hard knocks.

Zircon Symbolism

Throughout history, gemstones have carried symbolic meanings, and Zircon is no exception. With its deep-rooted history and enchanting aesthetics, Zircon has been imbued with various symbolic associations across cultures.

Spiritual and Healing Beliefs

Many cultures believe in the spiritual and healing powers of gemstones, and Zircon has its share of mystical associations:

  • Protection: In ancient lore, Zircon was believed to have protective properties, shielding its wearer from nightmares and negative energies.
  • Prosperity: Golden Zircons, with their sun-like hue, have been associated with prosperity, abundance, and success.
  • Wisdom: Blue Zircon, often reminiscent of the vast sky, symbolizes wisdom, clarity of thought, and spiritual growth.

Zircon in Astrology

In astrology, gemstones often have associations with specific zodiac signs:

  • Sagittarius: Blue Zircon, being a December birthstone, resonates with Sagittarians, believed to bring them luck, wisdom, and inner peace.

Love and Relationships

Given its sparkling allure, Zircon has also been linked with themes of love and commitment:

  • Harmony: Zircon is believed to promote harmony in relationships, helping couples resolve conflicts and strengthen their bond.
  • Trust: The gemstone’s clarity symbolizes transparency and trust, essential elements in any relationship.

Birthstone Significance

Zircon is one of the birthstones for December, making it a popular choice for jewelry gifts for those born in this month. As a birthstone, it’s believed to bring:

  • Good Luck: Wearing Zircon is thought to attract positivity and good fortune.
  • Health: Some believe that Zircon can boost physical vitality and prevent illnesses.

Choosing Your Zircon Gemstone

Choosing Your Zircon Gemstone
Choosing Your Zircon Gemstone

Picking the right Zircon gemstone can be both an exciting and daunting task. Whether you’re a collector, a jeweler, or someone seeking the perfect gem for a piece of jewelry, there are several factors to consider.

Zircon Cut

The cut of a Zircon can significantly influence its appearance and brilliance:

  • Round Brilliant: This cut maximizes the sparkle and is popular for rings and earrings.
  • Oval and Cushion: These cuts showcase the depth of color in Zircon, making them favorites for pendants and larger jewelry pieces.
  • Emerald and Asscher: These step cuts offer a vintage look, highlighting the gemstone’s clarity.

Zircon Clarity

Zircon’s clarity plays a crucial role in its value:

  • Eye-Clean: Gemstones that have no inclusions visible to the naked eye are often the most sought after.
  • Minor Inclusions: Some inclusions can add character to a Zircon, especially if they offer unique patterns or reflections.
  • Significant Inclusions: Zircons with noticeable inclusions are usually less valuable, but they can still be beautiful in their own right, especially in vintage-style jewelry.

Zircon Carat Weight

The size or carat weight of a Zircon can influence its price and suitability for specific jewelry types:

  • Small Zircons (below 2 carats): Perfect for delicate jewelry like earrings or dainty rings.
  • Medium Zircons (2 to 5 carats): Suitable for engagement rings or pendants.
  • Large Zircons (above 5 carats): These are often statement pieces and can be the centerpiece in necklaces or cocktail rings.

Factors Affecting Zircon Price

When purchasing Zircon, it’s essential to be aware of the factors that determine its price:

  • Color: Vivid blue Zircons or rare green Zircons often command higher prices.
  • Clarity: Eye-clean Zircons with no visible inclusions are more valuable.
  • Cut: A well-cut Zircon that maximizes its brilliance and showcases its color will be pricier.
  • Carat Weight: Larger Zircons, especially those above 5 carats, can be more expensive.

Zircon Price

Zircon’s price can vary significantly based on several factors. Understanding these can help buyers make informed decisions and ensure they get value for their money.

Factors Influencing Zircon Price

  1. Color: Blue Zircons, especially those of a deep, vivid hue, tend to be the most expensive. Rare colors, like green, can also fetch higher prices. Conversely, brown Zircons, which are more abundant, are generally less expensive.
  1. Clarity: Zircons with no visible inclusions (eye-clean) are more valuable. However, certain inclusions, if they don’t hinder the gem’s overall appearance, might not significantly reduce the price.
  1. Cut and Shape: A well-cut Zircon that showcases its brilliance and color to the fullest will command a higher price. Unique or intricate cuts might also increase the gem’s value.
  1. Carat Weight: As with most gemstones, larger Zircons tend to have a higher price per carat. Especially rare are Zircons that maintain clarity and color in larger sizes.
  1. Origin: Zircons from certain locations, known for their quality, can be pricier. For instance, blue Zircons from Cambodia or clear Zircons from Sri Lanka might have a premium.
  1. Treatments: Natural, untreated Zircons can fetch higher prices. However, since heat treatment is common for Zircons to enhance color, it doesn’t reduce the price as significantly as other treatments might.

Average Price Range of Zircon by Color

ColorPrice Range (per carat)
Blue$50 – $200
Green$100 – $400
Yellow/Golden$40 – $150
Red/Brown$30 – $100
Clear/White$40 – $150

Note: These prices are averages and can vary based on the other factors mentioned.

Tips for Buying Zircon

  • Certification: Always ask for a certificate of authenticity when purchasing a Zircon, especially if it’s a significant investment. This certificate should detail the gem’s properties and any treatments it has undergone.
  • Buy from Reputable Dealers: Ensure that the seller is reputable and knowledgeable. They should be able to provide detailed information about the Zircon’s origin, treatments, and care instructions.
  • View in Natural Light: Before finalizing your purchase, view the Zircon under natural light. This will give you a better understanding of its true color and clarity.

Popular Zircon Alternatives

Popular Zircon Alternatives
Popular Zircon Alternatives

While Zircon is unique in its beauty and properties, there are several gemstones that buyers might consider as alternatives, either due to similarity in appearance, color, or other attributes.

Cubic Zirconia (CZ)

  • Appearance: Cubic Zirconia, often abbreviated as CZ, is a synthesized gemstone that closely resembles a diamond in brilliance and clarity. It’s worth noting that despite the similarity in names, CZ and Zircon are entirely different materials.
  • Use: Due to its affordability and diamond-like sparkle, CZ is a popular choice for jewelry, especially in pieces where a clear, brilliant gem is desired.


  • Appearance: Diamonds are renowned for their unmatched hardness and brilliance.
  • Comparison with Zircon: While Zircon can have a diamond-like sparkle, diamonds are much harder and more durable. However, diamonds are also significantly more expensive.

Blue Topaz

  • Appearance: Blue Topaz offers a range of blue hues, from pale sky blue to a deep, almost teal blue.
  • Comparison with Zircon: Blue Topaz can resemble blue Zircon in color, but they have different levels of brilliance and fire.


  • Appearance: Sapphires are best known for their deep blue color, but they come in a range of other hues.
  • Comparison with Zircon: Blue Zircons can sometimes be mistaken for sapphires, but the latter is generally more expensive and has a different refractive index.


  • Appearance: Tanzanite boasts a unique violet-blue color.
  • Comparison with Zircon: Both Tanzanite and blue Zircon can be found in similar color ranges, but Tanzanite is rarer and typically pricier.

Zircon vs. Its Alternatives

GemstoneTypical UsePrice Range (per carat)Remarks
Cubic ZirconiaJewelry (diamond alternative)$5 – $50Lab-created, very affordable
DiamondJewelry$2,000 – $30,000+Natural, unmatched brilliance
Blue TopazJewelry$20 – $500Natural, available in various blue hues
SapphireJewelry$100 – $5,000+Natural, deep blue color
TanzaniteJewelry$300 – $1,200Natural, unique violet-blue color

Zircon Care and Maintenance

Owning a piece of Zircon jewelry or a Zircon gemstone is akin to possessing a fragment of Earth’s history. As with any treasured possession, taking proper care of it ensures its beauty remains intact for generations.

Cleaning Zircon

  1. Mild Soap Solution: To clean your Zircon, mix a few drops of mild dish soap with warm water. Gently scrub the gemstone using a soft brush, rinse it thoroughly, and pat dry with a soft cloth.
  2. Avoid Harsh Chemicals: Chemicals found in cosmetics, hairsprays, and cleaning products can damage Zircon’s brilliance. It’s best to put on your Zircon jewelry last when getting ready.
  3. Professional Cleaning: If your Zircon jewelry loses its sparkle or has hard-to-remove dirt, consider having it professionally cleaned.

Storing Zircon

  1. Separate Pouch: Because of Zircon’s brittleness, it’s essential to store it separately from other gemstones to avoid scratches. Using a soft pouch or a separate compartment in your jewelry box is ideal.
  2. Away from Direct Sunlight: Prolonged exposure to direct sunlight can fade the color of some Zircons. Store them in a cool, dark place.

Handling and Wearing

  1. Avoid Hard Knocks: While Zircon is relatively hard, it can chip or crack upon impact. Be cautious when wearing Zircon jewelry during activities that might expose it to hard knocks.
  2. Wear with Care: It’s a good idea to avoid wearing Zircon rings when doing manual tasks like gardening or cleaning. Earrings and necklaces, being less exposed, are safer for regular wear.

Periodic Checks

If your Zircon is set in jewelry, it’s a good idea to:

  1. Check the Setting: Ensure that the prongs or bezel holding the Zircon are secure. Over time, they can wear out or become loose.
  2. Re-polishing: If your Zircon becomes significantly scratched or loses its luster, consider having it re-polished by a professional.

Read Also: How to Tell if a Diamond is Real (11 easy ways)


Zircon, a gemstone as ancient as the Earth itself, captivates not just with its brilliance and array of colors but also with its rich history and geological significance.

From its formation deep within the Earth’s crust to its place in jewelry boxes and historical artifacts, Zircon has traveled through time, carrying tales of civilizations, geological transformations, and human craftsmanship.

Whether you’re a gem enthusiast, a jeweler, or someone seeking the perfect gemstone for a cherished piece of jewelry, understanding Zircon’s properties, sources, treatments, and care requirements ensures a deep appreciation of its value and beauty.

In the vast universe of gemstones, Zircon stands out as a testament to nature’s wonders and the timeless allure of sparkling gems.

Its resilience, fire, and myriad hues serve as a reminder of the Earth’s grandeur and the intricate ballet of geological processes that gift us such treasures.

As you embark on your journey with Zircon, whether it’s choosing the perfect gem, crafting a piece of jewelry, or simply admiring its beauty, remember the ages it has seen, the tales it tells, and the legacy it carries.